Friday, August 30, 2013

Complete list of Google products and services alphabetically arranged.

Accessible Search
AdWords Editor
Android Studio
 App Engine
 Art Project
Blog search  weblog
Blogger Mobile
 Business Photos
 Business Solutions
 Certification Program 
Chrome OS
Chromebook Pixel
 Closure Tools
 Consumer Surveys
 Crisis Response
 Cultural Institute
 Custom Search 
 driverless car
Experimental Search
Field Trip 
 Fusion Tables
Galaxy Nexus
Gmail Notifier
 Hotel Finder
 Image Search
Knowledge Graph 
Language Tools
 Map Maker
Motorola Mobility
Multiple languages
 News archive
Nexus 10 – 10"
Nexus 4 – 4.7"
Nexus 7
Nexus One
Nexus Q
Nexus S
Page Speed
 Patent Search
 Person Finder
Picasa Web Albums 
Project Glass
 Public Data Explorer
Search engine optimization
 Search functionality
 Street View
 Think Insights
Translator Toolkit
Web History
 Web Toolkit
Webmaster Tools
 Website Optimizer
Wildfire by
Zygote Body
 3D Warehouse 

Saturday, May 18, 2013

Points to be noted while drafting a reply letter in business

 First thank the buyer or prospect for the inquiry made.

Check the date and the time of letter made.

Type the answers clearly one by one as per the questions made in the inquiry.

Give the relevant information in additions to answers very briefly.

Specify the terms and conditions clearly if there is any.

Give price list, catalogue, brochures etc in the attachment.

Express your willingness to help the customers at any time of their inquiry.

Friday, May 17, 2013

Merits and Demerits of oral communication

Oral communication is the communication happens through words. The conversations with people, telephonic talks, interviews, radio programs are examples of oral communication. The merits and demerits of oral communication are:
-It is most economical way of communication as it does not incur huge cost and time.
-This communication helps in understanding the reactions of people easily.
-Quick feedback and clarification are possible.
-This communication becomes a part of informal way.
  -It is difficult to communicate when the distance is too long.
  -No legal validity can be claimed on it as it does not make a proof to produce in the court.
  - A lengthy message cannot be put in an oral communication. 

Saturday, April 20, 2013

Organizational Manual- Advantages and disadvantages

An organization manual gives and supplements additional details to the information supplied by the organization chart. It consists of top management decisions, standard practice and procedure and descriptions of various jobs. An organizational manual provides uniformity in the procedure and practices. The manual is periodically reviewed and changed whenever major policies are changed. Every manager should see clearly the responsibility for his job, his relations with other person in the organization. Types of manuals are:
Policy manual: This manual consists of policy decisions and guidelines given by the management. It gives the scope and limitations in which various policies should work; it also gives the course of action to be adopted for implementing policies.
Organizational manual: This provides a detailed view of the organization. The authority and responsibility of the persons gives in detailed way. This eliminates confusion and conflicts among individuals and departments. This provides various job descriptions existing in the organization too.
Rules and regulation manual: This manual gives various rules and regulations that should be followed by the people in a firm. The employees get the information about working days, holidays, procedure for getting different benefits etc.
Advantages of Organizational manual are; it becomes a written document. An organization manual provides the written information of every important decisions and programs. There will not be any misunderstanding among the individuals regarding their responsibility and duties. Also it is    guide to the day to day. Organizational manual gives the detailed explanation of rules, regulations and procedures. This will enable people to work their tasks effectively in the routine work environment. Sudden decisions can take with the help of organizational manual. All decisions are made when there is clear direction of information occurs. This possible through an organizational manual.
Disadvantages of organizational manual are; it is an expensive one for the organization. The preparation of organization manual requires comparatively huge budget. A small scale organization cannot sometimes afford to make this. Also rigidity stands as question. The organization manual always in written form, this has to be strictly followed. There is hardly any scope of violation of rules and regulations.

Wednesday, February 13, 2013

Difference between Formal and Informal communication

First difference is explained in terms of objectives of communication. Formal communication is a communication system which is to achieve the organizational objective. But the informal communication is the system to achieve individual objectives in an informal group. Every communication has certain objectives to fulfill. A formal communication is the communication which occurs in a formal way. Superior to subordinate communication or subordinate to superior is an example of formal communication. The formal communication is focused to do the tasks or jobs which one has to take. There by the organizational goals can be met. Informal communication meant to express the individual desires and interests. People find relaxed and comfort when they are in an informal gathering where they communicate each other their interests and tastes without any official barriers.

Second difference comes with the structural difference. Formal communication has a formal and well defined structure. Informal does not have a structure. There is a clear authority to report and get the instructions in a formal communication. This structure cannot be deviated as it ensures the smooth flow of communication and organization efficiency. Informal communication doesn't consider a structure as the people interact without any authority and level of job at which one works. A lower level employee may make a friendly talk with his superiors or high level officer without any official format.

The form and relationship of communication are discussed in the third difference. Only official and correct information are communicated in a formal communication. Informal communication takes both official as well as rumors. Information is officially communicated like the orders and instruction sent from the superior to sub ordinate. Informal communication takes the informal talks and gathering among the employees. Also relationships are controlled by rules, regulations, procedures etc. in formal communication. In an informal communication, the relationships are controlled by social and psychological needs of members.

Formal communication is in flexible nature. Informal is flexible. Once the duties and responsibilities are fixed, everything is to be communicated officially. These things cannot be changed frequently. Informal communication is flexible because it does not have the structure. The individuals in a group make the communication and they can be flexible as they like.

Limitations of capital budgeting

Capital budgeting refers to budgeting of capital expenditure. Long term planning and control of capital expenditure is called capital budgeting. According to R. M Lynch, ‘Capital budgeting consists in employment of available capital for the purpose of maximizing the long term profitability of the firm.” Capital budgeting is the process of analyzing alternative proposals and deciding whether not to commit fund to a particular investment proposal (long term project) whose benefits are to be realized over a period of time longer than one year. It is the total of generating, evaluating, selecting, and following up of capital expenditure alternative. Capital budgeting is concerned with heavy expenditure decisions. The benefits or returns from such expenditure are expected to be derived over many years in future. Success or failure of any business depends upon the quality capital budgeting. The limitations of capital budgeting are discussed under.

    The estimate of profitability of investment proposals is not accurate because they relate to future uncertainties. A sudden loss in any area of business will influence the return. This results in the profitability of the firm.  Capital budgeting is very complicated process because it is difficult  to estimate the cost of capital and to estimate the rate of return. Once the return is estimated a finance manager can find out within what time the investment can be reimbursed. So this is very difficult to calculate the return on investment. The cost incurred and benefits received occur at different time periods. Here arises the problem of time value of money. So the cost and benefits cannot be logically comparable. An investment made today is having a time value less than that of in future. So the return in the future period cannot be compared the investment made today. A man invests 10000 today in a business and he earns 2500 yearly. The time value of 2500 rupees may reduce to 2400 in the coming year. When we calculate the payback period, we find it difficult find an accurate period for reimbursing the initial investment.

  There are immeasurable considerations such as employee welfare, reputation of the firm etc. This is the area where the financial managers cannot forecast and foresee. This is a hidden cost which arises when the business starts functioning. This is a must for the business to run. Sometimes there will be huge cost may arise.  Capital budgeting is an irreversible decision. Once taken is taken, it cannot revert. If it is reverted, there occurs a huge loss. A business proposal starts with huge initial investment is a crucial decision for Enterprise. Once it is taken nobody can come back to the past. Whatever the consequence on the investment done has to be faced. Coming back to the past or in initial stage arises a huge loss. 

Elements of an advertisement copy

An advertisement copy is the ideas and message content which are reached to the viewers. The ad copy refers to all reading matter of an advertisement including the headline, subheads, texts or body. An advertiser or a copy writer should sacrifice a lot of time in making a copy. The elements or components of ad copy are:

Head line: The headline is the word in the attractive position in the advertisement .That is the words that will read first and situated to get more attraction. Usually the letters of the headline are larger than other parts. The different types of headline are label, Informative headline, provocative headline. Label is the headline which identifies the name of the product. Informative headline gives the in formations about a product. Usually it explains the attributes of the product. Provocative headline is the headline used in making a curiosity among the viewers. It insists the viewers to read.

Subheads and Body copy: This is the sub head captions that simply expand the headline thoughts. This headline takes the readers to read further. Subhead lines are known as the transitional bridge between the headline and copy text. Body copy is telling about the whole story of the product or service that a marketer wants to communicate. Body copy covers the features, benefits and utility of the product.

Slogans and Illustrations: Many slogans begin as successful headlines. Repeated usage becomes a popular one in among viewers. Slogan has two purposes; one is to provide continuity another is to memorize and repeat the statement among consumers. Illustrations part consists of photos, drawings, charts etc. the main objective behind this is to gain quick attention and comprehension of the product idea.

Identification and Closing idea: This is the content in which the seal, signature or logo of the firm is provided. This is to identify the sponsor or advertiser. Closing idea component emphasizes on an action. The action is the insisting the buyers to buy the product. The closing idea summarizes the messages, changes in the product, attitudes, all the information etc.